ARMADA automated spectrum monitoring system consists of the following units: control center, control stations and technical means of radio monitoring. In order to ensure the use of the radio frequency spectrum within the country, the system can have up to four hierarchy levels.
Example how ARMADA ASMS national level nodes can be deployed
The lower level is represented by technical means of radio monitoring, which are managed by the higher nodes in accordance with their priorities. The configuration of the technical means of radio monitoring included in the system is greatly determined by the area, landscape, type of used REM in a certain area. ARMADA ASMS of the national level my include the following radio monitoring technical means:
- Fixed stations and radio monitoring systems
- Mobile radio monitoring stations
- Portable (transportable) technical means
- Manpack technical means.
The hierarchy of ARMADA ASMS of the national level
In order to ensure the maximum coverage of REM monitored by the system, radio monitoring technical means are installed in large cities, which are characterized by the highest occupancy of the frequency range. Outside the complex urban conditions, where reflections of radio waves is much lower, and also the number of controlled REM is lower, the number of fixed technical means of radio monitoring decreases. It is desirable that any point of the monitored territory was within the operation zone of at least two fixed technical means, ensuring coordinates measurement of radio emission sources by the goniometric method, e.g. ARCHA-IN (ARCHA-INM) and ARTIKUL-SN. Size of the of electromagnetic availability zone of the fixed means network is determined by many considerations, the lift height of the receiving antenna of the technical means of radio monitoring, its sensitivity, capacity of radio emission sources. For example, for ARTIKUL-S Radio Direction Finders with a sensitivity of 5 μV/m in frequency range of 25-100 MHz and 800-2000 MHz, 50 m of antenna systems lift height, the detection zone radius of sources with the power of 4 W is approximately 11–13 km, and the area of possible localization zone of radio emission sources is about 250 km2. This is already quite enough for coverage of a small community, while a greater number of fixed technical means of radio monitoring is required for large cities. For example, adding one more radio direction finder increases area of source localization 1.5 times.
Localization of radio emission sources is possible not only by the goniometric method, but also by time-difference of arrival ones and by combined (hybrid) methods using a radio frequency sensor network on the basis of compact systems ARGAMAK-RSS. For localization of radio emission sources by time-difference of arrival methods at least three sensors are to be deployed.
Electromagnetic availability zones for two or three radio direction finders
To deploy a direction finding network in addition to the fixed technical means, mobile stations (ARGUMENT-I or mobile systems on the basis of ARTIKUL-H1) and/or portable technical means (ARCHA-IT, ARTIKUL-MT) are used, which can be quickly moved to the specified area and establish a pair with any of the fixed direction finders for expansion of the localization zone, and even localize a radio emission source outside the operation zone of the fixed facility. Therefore, mobile and portable means are intended for radio monitoring in locations where the low capacity of transmitters, high directivity of transmitting antennae, remoteness of the radio emission source make measurements by fixed means difficult or impossible. Besides, mobile and portable means can work in stand alone mode, as they ensure localization of radio emission sources immediately in motion or during stops. Handheld technical means (for example ARC-RP3M) are used as the last mile equipment, allowing localization of radio emission sources in places that are inaccessible for vehicles.
The table provides possible options of the radio monitoring technical means configuration for several types of inhabited localities.
Table. Options of the configuration of the radio monitoring technical means
|No.||Inhabited locality||Population, thousand people||Area, km2||Radio monitoring means||Quantity|
|3||City||<1000||250 - 500||ARCHA-IN||2|
|4||City||<1000||250 - 500||ARCHA-INM||1|
The system is controlled from Control Center, which is located in the capital. Control stations are located in regions provide for the same functions as Control Center but at lower level of hierarchy.
Structure of the control center or station:
- Server and network equipment
- Communication and data transmission facilities
- Back-up power system
- Operator AWS's
- System of visualization and collective information processing (option).
Structural diagram of the control center or point.
Server equipment includes the main and the backup servers, where the database is stored and also software allowing system control from automated workstations is installed. Additional server with large volume of disk space is used for storage of backup copies of the database contents. Backing up is done automatically with periodicity defined by the system administrator.
Operator's AWS's provides a user interface for system operation. With their help, operators, in accordance with their specialization and access rights, send radio monitoring tasks to the nodes and read the results of their completion, and also get access to information stored in the DB.
Network equipment is intended for setting up of data communication inside the center or the control station, and also its interfacing with ARMADA ASMS nodes Additional communication and data transmission facilities are intended for creation of backup management channels of the system nodes of an alternative basis outside the public data transmission networks.
Backup power system is intended for supporting the function of the control center or the point when the external power network is down. It includes uninterruptible power sources (UPS) and a generator. UPS ensures uninterruptible operation of the main systems of the control center or point for the period during the loss of the external power supply and start of the generator unit.
System of visualization and teamwork with information, intended for holding a meeting, video conference, as well as display on video wall of most important actual information required to make management decisions.
Mobile control center possible design
Control stations can be set up on mobile carrier. A mobile control station is designed to control radio monitoring system in case of failure of the fixed control station, and may also be used as a control station, if it is necessary to increase system performance under complex electromagnetic conditions or in special circumstances of radio monitoring.
The structure of ARMADA Automated Radio Monitoring System is determined by certain application conditions and can change depending on the Customer's needs.